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- Adolescent puberty changes
- Aging, especially in association with low testosterone levels
- Certain genetic disorders causing low levels of testosterone
- Certain medications, such as digoxin, spironolactone, cimetidine, and many others
- Anabolic steroids used to enhance athletic performance in sports
- Excess alcohol consumption leading to liver cirrhosis
- Chronic liver or kidney disease
- Presence of a condition or medication that decreases androgen or estrogen production
- Family history
- Marijuana use
- Hyperthyroidism—overactive thyroid gland
- Tumors of the testicles, lung, stomach, liver, kidney, or pituitary gland
- Enlargement of the breasts with firm tissue, usually starts on one side and go on to affect both breasts
- Blood tests
- Excessive alcohol consumption
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians http://familydoctor.org
Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics http://www.healthychildren.org
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Men's Health Centre http://www.menshealthcentre.net
Gynecomastia. American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/gynecomastia.html. Updated March 2014. Accessed March 10, 2016.
Gynecomastia. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116259/Gynecomastia. Updated July 23, 2014. Accessed March 10, 2016.
Johnson RE, Kermott CA, et al. Gynecomastia: evaluation and current treatment options. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2011;7:145-148.
Wollina U, Goldman A. Minimally invasive esthetic procedures of the male breast. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2011;10(2):150-155.
- Reviewer: Kari Kassir, MD
- Review Date: 03/2016 -
- Update Date: 05/11/2013 -